Afghanistan's neighbours must become part of its reconstruction. Countries like Iran, China Tadjikistan, but also Russia and India have complex interests in the conflict-ridden country and seek to position themselves for the time following the drawdown of the Western presence. Cross border problems like drugs or Islamism, as well as rich resources connect the fate of Afghanistan to that of their neighbors. Pakistan in particular, as safe haven for the Taliban, is equally a partner of Afghanistan and a source of its problems. The regional approach is a crucial element of any future vision of the Hindukush. The allies in ISAF have no strategy how to win these diverse neighbours as partners - while the decision on withdrawal is already been made. Authors from the USA, Europe and Central Asia discuss this question in the edited volume at hand. Special attention is given to the role of NATO and EU in creating regional partnerships. The authors debated the papers at DGAP workshops in Berlin, Washington and Brussels, supported by the German Marshall Fund of the US.