Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by persistent inflammation, connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction. Clinical parameters and indices and radiographic assessment of alveolar bone loss provide information on the severity of periodontitis but they do not measure disease activity. Thus the use of salivary biomarkers, could provide more accurate and allow more reliable evaluation of periodontal disease state. Saliva is an easily available, non-invasive diagnostic medium for a rapidly widening range of diseases and clinical situations. Salivary constituents that have been studied as potential diagnostic biomarkers for periodontal disease mainly include locally produced proteins of host and bacterial origin (enzymes, immunoglobulins and cytokines), genetic/genomic biomarkers such as DNA and mRNA of host origin, bacteria and bacterial products, ions, steroid hormones and volatile compounds.