The financial crisis has led to a far-reaching redesign of the European regulatory and supervisory framework. Following the commitments made within the context of the G-20, but also reacting to internal shortcomings, the EU engaged in a massive program to re-regulate financial markets. The EU furthermore redesigned the structure for supervisory cooperation, initially through the European Supervisory Authorities, and later in the Banking Union proposal. This book systematically assesses the new regulatory and supervisory framework. The structure follows the big items on the agenda: 1) what is banking union 2) the G-20 items: credit rating agency oversight, better capital for banks, the re-regulation of securities and derivatives markets, asset management, depositor protection and bank resolution, and 3) the specific EU matters, i.e. bank state aid.